The five major theoretical perspectives in psychology
Major Perspectives in Modern Psychology The early years of psychology were marked by the domination of a succession of different schools of thought.
The most important stage is the phallic stage where the focus of the libido is on the genitals. Humanistic psychology allows for a personality concept that is dynamic and fluid and accounts for much of the change a person experiences over a lifetime.
Behavioral perspective psychology
Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick then the way to do it is to figure out what processes are actually going on in their minds. His famous experiments causing dogs to salivate by ringing a bell is an example of classical conditioning , involving a simple stimulus-response reaction. So, if you're trying to cut back on your nightly wine consumption, a humanistic therapist would be encouraging and supportive but won't directly advise you to quit or try to analyze why you drink in the first place. Advantages and Disadvantages Humanistic psychology is holistic in nature: it takes whole persons into account rather than their separate traits or processes. So many expressions of our daily life come from Freud's theories of psychoanalysis - subconscious, denial, repression and anal personality to name only a few. Or why you remember certain events but not others? Things like the nervous system, genetics, the brain, the immune system, and the endocrine systems are just a few of the subjects that interest biological psychologists. They introduced the concepts of empirical data and reproducibility to their experiments, which were primarily concerned with observation of behaviours. You also solve problems based on your memory of past experiences. Evolutionary Psychology A central claim of evolutionary psychology is that the brain and therefore the mind evolved to solve problems encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors during the upper Pleistocene period over 10, years ago. It means that for the biological approach, you are the sum of your parts. It shows how early experiences affect adult personality. Brain-imaging techniques Different brain-imaging techniques provide scientists with insight into different aspects of how the human brain functions. Neuroimaging tools, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI scans, are often used to observe which areas of the brain are active during particular tasks in order to help psychologists understand the link between brain and behavior. Essentially, people will change their behavior to align with the social situation at hand.
The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: namely classical conditioning and operant conditioning. The psychodynamic perspective concentrates too much on the unconscious mind and childhood.
Let's look at each of these five main approaches that guide modern psychological research. Before the advent of genome sequencing, such investigations into inherited traits were often conducted using twin studies.
The Cognitive Perspective Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. This subfield of psychology is concerned with the way such feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and goals are constructed, and how these psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
It shows how early experiences affect adult personality.
Things like the nervous system, genetics, the brain, the immune system, and the endocrine systems are just a few of the subjects that interest biological psychologists. As such, it tends to lose sight of the role of socialization which is different in each country and the possibility of free will.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Broadly speaking the discussion focuses on the different branches of psychology, and if they are indeed scientific.
This theory focuses on how aspects of culture, such as values, beliefs, customs, and skills, are transmitted from one generation to the next.
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